April 17, 2005

Your unworlding

War is a theme that gives me a nearly welcome unease. If that seems a strange thing to say, I'll admit upfront that while I mean it, it's really a bad paraphrase. After years covering wars all over the world, the journalist Chris Hedges wrote a small masterpiece of a book called War Is a Force that Gives Us Meaning. In it and in lectures he has given since, he explores war as elixir and grime, as myth and betrayal. To me, it is a profoundly anti-war book, without being merely pacifist. That's the understanding Hedges has, grown from his experiences. I won't say more, you should read the book.

I buy and read books about war with a sort of compulsive fascination. My shelves are dotted with them: about battles from Leonidas and his heroic Spartans to Agincourt, the World Wars to Vietnam and the Gulf Wars. I haven't read a lot of books on my shelves, but the war books -- they get read. The best of them sadden me greatly; more than that, they make me choke to hear emptiness like the "glory" of war. And they drive me to read ever more. That's the welcome unease.

The best of them: Eugene Sledge's With the Old Breed, John Keegan's The Face of Battle, Steven Pressfield's Gates of Fire and Hedges's book. Others. I'm now reading Tobias Wolff's Vietnam memoir, In Pharaoh's Army.

You'll notice I've not mentioned Indian books on war. I've often wondered: is there truly no outstanding book-length writing on our wars? Or have I missed something? Memoirs by retired Generals tend to be stilted and self-serving, and I've never been inclined to read regimental histories that other retired Generals write. (Who does read those?) The HarperCollins book, Guns and Yellow Roses, is thought-provoking and features some superb writers, but it is in the end a collection of essays that doesn't dig deep enough.

Where's the Indian Sledge, the jawan or young officer who fights and has no illusions about the other side, but is clear-eyed too about his own Army and country, and what his fellow-soldiers do in their names? Where's the look back at the wars we fought, the mistakes we made, that's not drenched in enemy perfidy? Where's the gripping retelling of Porus fighting Alexander, or the carnage at Kalinga that awoke an Emperor's conscience?

Yes, what am I missing?

But back to Chris Hedges. He writes, and has often spoken, of a close friend who died in Sierra Leone in 2000 -- Kurt Schork, also a war correspondent. He and Hedges worked together for a decade, starting in northern Iraq. In a lecture at Harvard two years ago, Hedges spoke of how they would "pass books back and forth in our struggle to make sense of the madness around us."

Sometimes I think that's why I read so compulsively on war, Hedges's book included.

Kurt Schork was buried in a Sarajevo cemetery. In November 2000, Hedges went to Sarajevo to visit Schork's grave. He read a poem there. Now most times, poetry does very little for me. But this one haunts me, there's no other word I have. The Roman lyric poet, Catullus, wrote it to honour his brother, killed near Troy in 58 BC. Here it is, in full.


By strangers' coasts and waters, many days at sea,
I came here for the rites of your unworlding,
Bringing for you, the dead, these last gifts of the living
And my words -- vain sounds for the man of dust.
Alas, my brother,
You have been taken from me. You have been taken from me
And by cold hands turned to shadow, and my pain.
Here are the foods of the old ceremony appointed
Long ago for the starvelings under the earth.
Take them. Your brother's tears have made them wet. And take
Into eternity my hail and my farewell.


I sent these lines to a young man I know who lost his brother in Kashmir in 2000. They come to me whenever I come across names like Nawang Kapadia, Abhimanyu Sikka, Nissar Ahmed Rishi, Abhijit Gadgil, Saurabh Kalia, Baban Chawa, S Shabiyullah ... A very long list. All taken from brothers like Catullus and Hedges, from sisters and wives and families -- and by cold hands turned to shadow, and their pain.

War gives us meaning, Hedges writes. Pain, unease and some haunting questions, in that meaning.

12 comments:

Anonymous said...

The poem by Catullus is really nice and haunting. For me this is the second time that I have come across a poem, or rather a fragment of a poem by Catullus on the web in about a month - and I had not even known about him before that.

annie said...

No Indian war books? What're you saying? Ramayana? Mahabharata?
In fact, many people still believe the myth that one should not keep a copy of the Mahabharata in a home, because it leads to conflict... its probably the greatest war-book every written, (considering it includes The Gita) except it is probably based on a story so old, we can no longer recognize it

Dilip D'Souza said...

Annie, point taken. What I guess I meant was books written in modern times. But there again, there is Irawati Karve's superb little "Yuganta". A definite must-read.

Sriram said...

One of my favorite war poems is "Suicide in the trenches" by Siegfried Sassoon. It goes like this:


I knew a simple soldier boy
Who grinned at life in empty joy,
Slept soundly through the lonesome dark,
And whistled early with the lark.

In winter trenches, cowed and glum,
With crumps and lice and lack of rum,
He put a bullet through his brain.
No one spoke of him again.

You smug-faced crowds with kindling eye
Who cheer when soldier lads march by,
Sneak home and pray you'll never know
The hell where youth and laughter go.

chappan said...

Dilip
The past 100 years must have witnessed wars that will easily surpass the destruction wrought by all the collective wars that came before that. Are we truly evolving or is this regressive behaviour ? When will we ever learn from the futility of wars ?Its so easy to comprehend the savagery of this excercise, but why so diffcult to eradicate ?

Suhail said...

I'll go off on a tangent, again. But I hope it adds value to the topic.

I have no books, no poems, but a post-war movie. Very Indian. Of times here and now. Probably nobody has heard of it. The cast is Om Puri and his wife Revathi. Based on true story of a father's struggle to honour his son lost in Tiger Hills, by starting the petrol-bunk, offered to families of Kargil martyrs by the govt. It's about the "battle which begins after the war ends". The movie is Dhoop. Go watch it. Just don't blame me, if you find yourself swinging between conflicting emotions of triumph and dejection.

Suhail said...

Forgot to mention: that petrolpump operates somewhere in Delhi by the name "Kargil Heights". Delhiites, go check it out.

Sriram said...

Chappan,

"We" have not killed all these people in the last century. It is the various governments of the world that have killed millions upon millions. It is not just war either. Mao and Stalin killed millions of their countrymen by efficient "central planning" as well.

Individuals, however, and private corporations (driven by greed, those scum!) have saved millions of lives by various innovations and acts of charities, without forcing people in any way.

And yet, there are those who think the only way to solve anything is to hand over all our hard earned money and rights to these very politicians and bureaucrats!

Dilip D'Souza said...

Chappan, what if evolving means turning into ever more aggressive, violent, murderous beings? I believe we will never be free of wars. The challenge is to find ways to make them more difficult to wage.

Sriram, I read Chappan carefully and I did not find anywhere that he said "we" killed a lot of people. In any case, since you managed to connect mass killing in wars to handing over our money and rights to politicians and bureaucrats, I'm waiting to hear about the connection to making life hard for car owners in Bombay.

Fine poem, by the way. If you like Sassoon, try Wilfred Owens too ("Dulce et Decorum Est" is a marvel); also read Pat Barker's "Regeneration".

Sunil said...

Food for thought.....(or perhaps the thought is on).....you could write a book on Indian wars.....Kargil for starters. Its been a while since Narmada and Branded by law...

:-)

-Sunil

Sriram said...

Dilip,

I have made the connections clear in earlier posts and I believe you even agreed (sort of). It all comes down to force. Anything achieved through force is wrong and voluntary interaction is the best model.

I didn't bring up car owners in Mumbai in this thread, but you did. So here goes: I think if a glut of cars leads to congestion in traffic and scarcity in parking, people can figure out the impracticality of cars themselves and will start using mass transport. NYC is a case in point.

I think any central planner deciding for everyone about the suitability of cars in Mumbai and forcing it down commuters throats is immoral.

I am not sure where you stand. You seem to be against force and coercion. May be you exempt your own ideas from that or may be you don't consider it coercion at all. Or may be coercion is OK when it is for the "common good" as decided by the chosen few?

Dilip D'Souza said...

Sriram, but you did bring up a puzzling connection: wars, to handing over money and rights to politicians and bureaucrats. So I thought, you must then have something to say about your earlier puzzling connection, re: cars in this city.

But forgive me, I still am unable to see what connection what you say in your comment above has to do with wars. No doubt you will explain.

I am not sure where you stand, you say. Well, that's a change! Not long ago you listed a whole lot of things about me to prove I was not libertarian.

Sunil, thanks! Another book is sort of in the works in my head -- it may be about war, though I don't think about Kargil. Let's see. It is about time, I feel it!